Posts Tagged ‘Proteomics’

Suprise! mRNA and Protein Levels Do Not Always Correspond!

 :: Posted by American Biotechnologist on 03-27-2014

The central dogma of molecular biology states that DNA codes for RNA and RNA codes for protein. It was widely understood that because protein is translated from mRNA, the amount of mRNA in a cell would somewhat correspond to the quantity of cellular protein. In a new study out of Notre Dame, scientists have shown that this theory is not always correct. While in many cases mRNA and protein levels do correspond, there are a surprisingly high number of exceptions, demonstrating that the amounts of a particular protein can be controlled by multiple mechanisms.

Bioanalytical chemist Norman Dovichi and molecular biologist Paul Huber identified and measured the levels of about 4,000 proteins, which exhibited patterns of expression that reflect key events during early Xenopus development resulting in the largest data set on developmental proteomics for any organism.

The study was conducted in Xenopus laevis embryos, which is a favored model for this type of research. In Xenopus, development takes place in well-defined stages outside the mother, thereby allowing embryogenesis to be monitored in real time. Additionally, embryos develop rapidly, achieving a nearly fully developed nervous system within four days.

Their results are available open access in Scientific Reports.

Symphony of Life Revealed

 :: Posted by American Biotechnologist on 01-16-2014

Like the strings on a violin or the pipes of an organ, the proteins in the human body vibrate in different patterns, scientists have long suspected.

Now, a new study provides what researchers say is the first conclusive evidence that this is true.

Using a technique they developed based on terahertz near-field microscopy, scientists from the University at Buffalo and Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute (HWI) have for the first time observed in detail the vibrations of lysozyme, an antibacterial protein found in many animals.

The team found that the vibrations, which were previously thought to dissipate quickly, actually persist in molecules like the “ringing of a bell,” said UB physics professor Andrea Markelz, PhD, wh0 led the study.

These tiny motions enable proteins to change shape quickly so they can readily bind to other proteins, a process that is necessary for the body to perform critical biological functions like absorbing oxygen, repairing cells and replicating DNA, Markelz said.

The research opens the door to a whole new way of studying the basic cellular processes that enable life.

Read more…

A Tribute to the Father of the Hybridoma

 :: Posted by American Biotechnologist on 09-27-2013

In 1984, CĂ©sar Milstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for developing the hybridoma technique for the production of monoclonal antibodies. The following video by Science Rapper is a tribute to Dr. Milstein in honor of his monumental contribution to science.

Accelerating the discovery of the hammers and tongs of life

 :: Posted by American Biotechnologist on 02-25-2013

Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have found a way to significanlty increase the processing speed at which mass spectrometers identify proteins. Professor Joshua Coon and colleagues from the department of chemistry and biomolecular chemistry, used isotope tags to enable the mass spec to differentiate between as many as 20 different samples at once. The new technology is expected to make mass spec cheaper, faster and more accessible to the scientific masses clamoring to be part of a technique that is on the forefront of biology.

As one astute observer put it:

Proteins are essential building blocks of biology, used in muscle, brain, blood and hormones. If the genes are the blueprints, the proteins patterned on them are the hammers and tongs of life.

With Coon’s new technology, the discovery of the hammers and tongs have life has just been kicked up a notch.

For more information, read Analytical trick may accelerate cancer diagnosis.


 :: Posted by American Biotechnologist on 07-09-2012

Diseases are the result of underlying system interactions NOT simply physical underpinnings. Watch the following talk from Northeastern University Professor Albert-László Barabási to learn how mapping cellular protein reactions can help us discover how diseases work.