Hormonal Changes In Expectant Fathers

Impending fatherhood has a significant effect in the bodies of the fathers. According to a research by the University of Michigan, approaching fatherhood affects the level hormones such as testosterone and also estaradiol. The research showed that the psychological feelings that they experience as they wait to become fathers.

The changes in the hormonal balance in the body of the fathers can have significant implications on their paternal behaviors after their babies arrive. Normally, these changes come in the last moments of expectancy before the child is born.

The changes in the level and secretion of hormones in the bodies of expectant fathers are intense among the first time fathers. Such fathers are experiencing fatherhood period for the first time in their lives. The following are some means to detect the changes:

The changes in the level of hormones among expectant fathers can be detected through testing the samples of their saliva. Saliva contains three male hormones including testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol.

These hormones can easily be tested through checking their presence level in the saliva. However, their presence in the saliva samples in different since these hormones are associated with different purposes in the bodies of men.

According to the University of Michigan’s research on the changes of hormones among expectant fathers, the men who are waiting for their babies to be born have significant declines in the level of testosterone and estradiol in their bodies.

The age of an expectant father also contributes to the specific decline in the level of hormones as showcased in the saliva samples. The research showed that men in the age brackets of 18-45 years show the highest decline in the level of testosterone and estradiol in their bodies.

However, despite the fact that the expectant fathers have a change in the level of hormone in their bodies, they do not have any psychological effect which is as a result of this significant change. This can be seen through the level of cortisal in their bodies.

From the saliva samples used in the research, the level of cortisal was noted to be at the unchanged despite the changes in the other hormones. Therefore, it is evident that men do not suffer any psychological changes such as stress and depression in their bodies at this moment.

Contrary to the case with men, women show increase in the level of hormones in their prenatal stage. Mainly, women show an increase in four major hormones including progesterone, estrogen, oxytocin, and prolactin.

There is increase in hormones such as progesterone level especially in prenatal stages among women. Progesterone guides women in their maternal behavior and social closeness. However, the level of hormones decreases among men especially testosterone.

Testosterone and estradiol hormones play a major role in the bodies of men. However, their level during impending fatherhood declines due to the anticipation of becoming a father. Although the changes are significant and strongly evident, they do not result to any psychological and behavioral changes in men. This is seen by the maintained level of the stress hormone (cortisal).

Thanks to the University of Michigan for contributing this story.

Visualizing Unfolded Protein Movement Within the Cell

It has long been assumed that unfolded proteins are slower than their folded counterparts. The assumption is usually on the basis of the common knowledge that bulky is heavier than compact. To shed more light on this, Professor Martin Gruebele spearheaded research to enable the witnessing of the actual movements of these proteins in the cell.

The observation was done by using fluorescent microscope. The microscope was used alongside three-dimensional diffusion modelling. The, findings of this research were that the bulkiness of the unfolded protein is not the sole determinant of the speed with which it moves inside the cell. Chaperone molecules probably play a bigger role than size. The research also found that there are instances when too many proteins come unfolded. When this happens, there may not be enough chaperone molecules to bind with.

According to the research, when there are no chaperone molecules available, to move the unfolded proteins, the entire cell may fail due to its inability to fulfill its roles.

It is normal for chaperones to join with unfolded proteins and help them move easily to all parts of the cell. If there is a high ratio of unfolding proteins joining with unfolded cells. The unfolded cells are not able to move easily. They find themselves in a veritable traffic jam which slows them down. Movement of these proteins is also slowed down by the fact that they also bind with molecules that are not chaperone. This crowds them making it difficult for them to move. Binding with non-chaperone molecules also causes other problems for the cell that make it even more difficult for the cell to fulfill its roles. They also hasten the path to total failure of the cell.

The speed of these proteins, however, was not found to be constant in a manner that the exact effect of large amounts of chaperone binding could be determined. The proteins moved faster in at certain parts of the cell and then slow down at others in an apparently random manner.

While the findings of this research are fascinating, there is no way of knowing whether they apply on all types of proteins or they can also apply on proteins of other types. It could be that each type of protein is affected differently by unfolding. It is for this reason that Professor Gruebele and the team want to conduct another research. In this other research, they will establish whether all proteins react the same to unfolding and chaperones or not. It will be deeper and it will give more clarity on the question of unfolding proteins.

It could be that mammalian, yeast and warm cells provide different environments for the cells to operate in. this would mean that the responses are different for different types of cells. The type of response that unfolded proteins give may lead to diseases such as prion. The responses may also lead to certain neurodegenerative diseases. This means that this research could be seminal in future for curing or managing such protein misfolding diseases.

Citation: Guo M, Gelman H, Gruebele M (2014) Coupled Protein Diffusion and Folding in the Cell. PLoS ONE 9(12): e113040. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113040

How Biological Research Harms Psychiatric Patients

Many of the scientists today live guided by this notion that, “possessing much knowledge is much better’. Mostly, we spend majority of our acquired careers, or even our entire lives, trying our best to clearly understand the mystery of biological build mechanisms that are involved in almost every facet of our lives.

However, there is a possibility that we might never get satisfied provided that there lays a lot of science for discovery. Nonetheless, there are some circumstances whereby a lot of knowledge is perceived to be somewhat harmful.

A recent study that was conducted sorely by some of the scientists based at the Yale University, later published accordingly in the selected proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; whereby these researchers found out that the time clinicians happen to come across descriptions made to the patients with symptoms which was explained earlier using some information that focused much on genetics or neurobiology; their inner expression of much empathy felt for that patient tends to decrease.

A different study by Matthew Lebowtz showed that, putting more emphasis, or rather overemphasis on the biology in trying to clearly explain the psychopathology can at times prove to be dehumanizing maybe by largely reducing people who are of great worth to only mere or rather just simple biological-like mechanisms. However this is contrary to what is expected in the issue.

Two amongst most of the very crucial qualities most of the patients tend to search for sorely in physicians to consider them are first competency, and then compassion. Even though competency is thought as a mere function based on knowledge and also understanding the desired mechanisms those of a disease; all the doctors strictly must at any cost be very careful so as to avoid allowing their inborn and acquired knowledge to happen to dampen this compassion of theirs that the possess towards the clients they are entrusted with.

The earlier findings quoted above by Matthew Lebowtz happen to challenge this notion which puts it out that those biological based explanations elaborating mental perceived illness tend to majorly boost the compassion felt for ten millions of the Americans most of who are found suffering from serious mental-health perceived problems.

The conventional- wisdom strictly suggests the fact that these biological known explanations meant to explain psychiatric perceived symptoms are required to reduce greatly the rampant blame that the patients mostly get in return for the demonstrated behavior which emerge after allowing their genes and also their cells of the brains to become culprits. However, this should have ended up increasing the feelings expressed for compassion instead.

In other several studies in U.S, clinicians mostly the descriptions shown by patients who portrays symptoms those were earlier explained, in using some information that was seen to focus majorly on genetics, neurobiology and also childhood perceived experiences and finally circumstances of life that were stressful.

Among many questions asked, clinicians were at some point questioned on what extend they were compassionate towards an individual; which is a very essential and crucial element of the later therapy.

For more information visit For docs, more biology info means less empathy for mental health patients

Ways to Remove Pet Hair

If you have a pet such as rabbit, cat, or dog, fur/pet hair may be one of the challenges facing you in your house. Pet hair usually clings onto the surfaces of items such as furniture, house corners or spaces, rug, carpet, shoes, or tools in the house.

Removing pet hair on these items is usually difficult. Pets can be able to access corners or spaces that even your hand cannot fit in. Also, pet hair is fond of attaching onto items in a way that is difficult to remove by usual cleaning means.

Remove Pet Hair

There are several ways which you can use to remove pet hair from items in the house. They include:

1) Vacuum Cleaner Pet Hair Removal

Ways to Remove Pet HairPet hair on your leather sofa or any other type of furniture may be quite embarrassing. This may be much if the pet’s hair has a different color from that of the furniture. This makes it easy for everyone to see it.

The use of vacuum cleaner to remove pet hair from different parts in the house is one of the most effective methods. Vacuum cleaner draws everything including small particles and hairs from all the parts of the house including corners, cracks, and small spaces.

The vacuum cleaner has a lot of pressure which draws the pet hair from all surfaces where it is attached. It can effectively remove pet hair from furniture surfaces, tools, shoes, rugs, and on the carpets. This leaves the surfaces clean and with their initial colors.

2) Use of Rubber Gloves

Ways to Remove Pet HairRubber gloves also present a method through which you can get rid of pet hair in your hair. Before you remove the pet hair on the surfaces, you need to clean the surfaces well and ensure that they are clean and dry.

Put on the rubber gloves onto your hands and rub them over the surfaces. Normally, the rubber gloves create a friction with static energy which draws the hair off from the surfaces of the items in the house. However, this method only works with items which have flat surfaces such as furniture and carpets.

3) Use of Dryer Sheet

Ways to Remove Pet HairThis is a proactive method which prevents the pet hair from initially landing onto the surfaces of items. You need to use a rubric softener sheet to attract and remove lose and detached hair which is on the body of your pet. This method is better than necessarily brushing the pet to remove hairs. By removing the hair, your pet will pose no harm of leaving his/her hair behind on the surfaces of the items in your house.

4) Use of Kitchen Sponge

Ways to Remove Pet HairThis is a simple method of pet hair removal on surfaces of items such as couches. Ensure that your kitchen sponge is clean and completely dry. Run the kitchen sponge gently over the surface of the couch. Eventually, the sponge attracts the hair from the surfaces.

Conclusion

Pet hair may replace the initial appearance of items such as furniture in your house by adding colors and clinging onto their surfaces. Discouraging your pet from sleeping or playing on the furniture or other items in the house may help in controlling the presence of fur on surfaces. This may be achieved by thoroughly training your pet.

 

How to Make Your House More Airy?

Fresh air is a source of good health and cleanliness especially in the house. Therefore, in order to ensure that your house has fresh air, you must make it airy. This implies making it possible for air to enter into and from your house freely.

All rooms and other parts in your house should freely allow the passage of air from the interior and o the interior. This is only enhanced after making several changes and improvements in your house.

Tips to Making Your House More Airy

The air that present in your house should be fresh and free from any foreign materials. There are several tips that may help you to change some of your activities in your house as well as the appearance of the house in order to make it airy. These include:

1) Wash Your House Carefully

How to Make Your House More AiryDifferent parts of your house such as kitchen, bathroom, toilet, carpet, and mats should we handled carefully during cleaning. Be sure to eliminate all the humidity, dust, and any other form of dirt from these areas.

This will remove any foreign odor and materials from the house. Through removal of foreign odor and materials, fresh air can easily move in to occupy the space inside your house. This will make your house more airy.

2) Vacuum Your House Regularly

How to Make Your House More AiryVacuum cleaning is the best way to eliminate dust, small particles, and dirt in the house. The presence of dust in parts such as windows, doors, ventilation, or any other air passage channel interferes with quality of the air.

Through vacuum cleaning, you will be able to remove materials which change the air quality such as dust. Also, you will also clear blockages in air passage channels thus allowing air to move in and out of your house.

3) Check the Usage of Different Sprays and Fume Chemicals

Chemicals and sprays such as insecticides, washing chemicals and detergents, anti-fungal spray, and air fresheners may fill the house with stuffiness and mixed odors through adding fumes and odors. However, it is possible for you to limit the usage of such materials in your house as a way of reducing their effect on air entry and occupation in your house.

4) Install an Air Conditioner

How to Make Your House More AiryFor years now, air conditioners have heavily been used as the most perfect solution for air movement in rooms and houses. An air conditioner influences the movement of air inside a room thus allowing air freshening.

At the same time, an air conditioner checks the level of humidity inside a room through regulating the air entering a room. This makes your house better able to receive and release air. You may install a fixed or a portable air conditioner depending on your preference.

5) Check the Air Passage Channels

Every house is constructed with its specific air passage channels. These include: windows, doors, and ventilation among others. Ensure that these channels are spacious and able to let enough air pass through. Also, remove blockages, molds, and mildews formed on these parts. Be sure to prevent any entry of moisture inside your house in order to regulate the humidity level.

Conclusion

An airy house is a major step towards achieving proper health and a clean environment in your house. It enables everyone in the house to live and perform in full energy and easiness. Therefore, making your house airy is an important role for you and your family.

 

7 Common Cat Behavior Problems

Common Cat Behavior ProblemsCats are known to be among the closest feline friends to many people. They provide companionship, play-time, and happiness to our lives and that of our family members through literally being close or rubbing and kneading on the legs and laps. However, not everything done by cats is pleasant. At times, cat behavior may result into a serious problem in the house.

Common Cat Behavior Problems

Cats have several behaviors which may translate into problems in the house. This is resulted by the psychological or physiological status of the cat or its natural temperament. The following are some of these behaviors:

1) Keeping You Up at Night

Your cat may develop a tendency of wanting to have you awake in the late night. Some cats always start to meow loudly and constantly after lights are switched off. Others sneak into the bedroom and starts scratching the bed sheets or swatting. This usually disrupts the normal cat-human relationship.

2) Biting and Scratching People

A cat may develop the habit of biting and scratching people. Normally, such a cat responds through biting and/or scratching after a person gets closer to it for play or to hold it. As a cat grows from a kitten to maturity, it may shift from being gentle into being rough and unfriendly.

3) Destroying and Dismantling Materials in the House

Some cats may grow to be excessively playful. You may find out that your cat is forcing you to rearrange or repair different materials in your house, for example, rugs, furniture, clothes, shoes, or bed and furniture covers. Normally, cats do this through scratching and pulling away these materials.

4) Stealing or Grabbing Food

Common Cat Behavior ProblemsIt is normal for cats to like eating together with people. Others only accept to eat from their food box if it is placed close to a person. However, you may find out that your cat is stealing food from the store or grabbing food from family members or visitors as you dine. This is common to some cats regardless of whether they are served with enough food or not.

5) Jumping on to the Kitchen Counter or Store Boxes

After finding out that food or other items are kept in places such as kitchen counters or store boxes, some cats develop a tendency of jumping over such places in order to look for food or other materials. As they jump over, they may step on items such as utensils, shoes, or appliances. This may result to effects such as destruction or electric accidents.

6) Spraying the Urine

This is common to male cats. As cats grow up, they may end up ignoring the tendency of being used to responsible urination at the litter box. Some usually spray urine over as they walk or climb on top of different parts in the house. The sprayed urine may land on food or other materials in the house.

7) Rejecting the Litter Box and Opting for Other Places

Although thoroughly trained, some cats will only reject their own litter box and choose other places for their urination or defecation purposes. These places may include: under furniture, house corners, under the bed, or inside the shoes.

Conclusion

Cats have very many common behavior problems that may occur at different stages of their growth. Thorough training of your cat may prevent him/her from landing into such behaviors in life. Also, providing materials such as toys and clean litter box as well as utmost gentleness to him/her will translate into good behavior.

Why Should You Choose Flush Mounting Ceiling Fan?

Why Should You Choose Flush Mounting Ceiling FanThe flush mounting ceiling fan is also known as hugger fan. This fan has been produced recently as a refinement of traditional ceiling fan. The fan has been made using technology which has been applied on the blades and its entire functionality.

Choose a Flush Mounting Ceiling Fan

Flush mounting ceiling fan has approved as a solution to ceiling fans efficiency due to its efficiency. The fan has different properties which were not available with the previous fans. Below are some befits associated with this ceiling fan:

1) Energy Efficiency

The world has recently launched campaigns to advise people on the importance of energy efficiency in all life dimensions. Like other appliances, ceiling fans also use electricity for its operation.

However, this ceiling fan is made with an ability to operate with minimum energy requirement. Also, using wall switch, remote control, or pull-chain, you can easily control its operation and, thus, the energy consumption. This translates into a great deal in reducing the energy cost.

2) Regulates the Temperature of the Room

Flush mounting ceiling fan is very effective in ensuring air circulation as well as air freshening in a room. Additionally, the ceiling fan introduces downward and upward movement of the air inside a room. This exchanges the air in different regions of the room. Therefore, this has a cooling and also a warming effect in the room temperature. For instance, the fan is known for cooling the body skin through enhancing evaporation.

3) It is Portable and Easy to Install or Move

Why Should You Choose Flush Mounting Ceiling FanThe flush mounting ceiling fan is easy to connect and disconnect without interfering with its interior parts. Therefore, you can easily change the location of the ceiling fan inside your house. You can do this by easily switching off the switch and disconnecting or connecting the fan without requiring any help from a technician.

The fan is also light in weight. Thus, it is easy to carry from one part of the house to the other. Also, they it does not easily ruin after disconnecting it from its initial location. Thus, it is perfectly durable.

4) Safe even in Low Ceiling Rooms

You do not have to worry about the fan’s blades as they revolve around. The fan is made in a way such that it is attached closer to the wall than other types of fans, usually 10-12 fans under the ceiling level. Thus, the blades can hardly hit anyone walking or standing tall inside any room with a low ceiling level. This eliminates any risk that may be posed by a ceiling inside a room.

5) Light Benefits

The flush mounting ceiling fan is enhanced with extra energy efficiency ability. It can reflect light from different sources within a room. This makes a room more lit and more colorful. Therefore, you do not need to install a lot of bulbs or bulbs which need to consume a lot of electricity in order to light up a room. As a result, the ceiling fan translates into lesser usage of energy in your house.

Conclusion

Previously, fans were only used to regulate the quality of air through allowing movement of air inside and outside a room. However, the flush mounting ceiling fan has come with more benefits. It can increase light in a room, control temperature, and even reduce ceiling fans’ risks. The fan also comes with an affordable price.

Top 3 Brands for Portable Air Conditioner

There are several portable air conditioner brands in the market. As you seek to select the best brand in the market, it is advisable that you find an air conditioner which is energy efficient as well as affordable.

Recently, portable air conditioners have been refined with new technology which has improved their efficiency and functionality. Also, you should be sure to check the features in a portable air conditioner which depict recent technological changes.

Portable Air Conditioner Brands

There are a few brands which have been reviewed and found to contain recent features suitable for a portable air conditioner. These include:

1) Honeywell

AmericanBiotechnologist.comHoneywell portable air conditioners are known for their efficiency in providing cooling effect and comfort in a room. The air conditioner is compact and easy to install and operate in your room. Also, it is made with bright colors which complement for interior décor. At the same time, the colors offer a reflection of light from the light sources.

Honeywell portable air conditioners have effective filters which dehumidifies air entering a room. This makes the air cool and free from stuffiness. Its outlet is able to send hot and stuffy air from the interior while exchanging it with fresh air. Therefore, this type of air conditioner is energy efficient and also effective in controlling the quality of air inside a room.

2) Whynter

AmericanBiotechnologist.comWhynter portable air conditioner is known for its eco-friendliness. This is due to its minimum energy consumption rate with its ultimate performance. This air conditioner can be installed inside a room as it is easy to control its operation. Whynter air conditioners also operate with limited noise thus ensuring a quiet environment.

With a whynter portable air conditioner, you will be assured of a comfortable home climate. The air conditioner is effective in cooling as well as warming the air inside a room. It controls the level of humidity in a room thus preventing any chances of the air inside going stuffy.

Whynter portable air conditioner is perfect for both summer and winter seasons since it is possible to control warmth/coolness produced during operation. Its energy efficiency makes it an energy bills-friendly appliance to be used at home.

3) Shinco

AmericanBiotechnologist.comThe Shinco portable air conditioner is largely known for its efficiency in cooling even in large rooms. It can operate with a cooling power which can cool up to 300 square feet room comfortably. Shinco portable air conditioner also distributes air evenly and thoroughly within a room. Thus, this air conditioner can be used in large rooms in workplaces or even in social halls with large numbers of people.

Shinco air conditioner contains temperature adjustors, cooling fan, and remote controls. This makes it possible for you to control its functionality even from a distance. With a self-evaporative system, the air conditioner uses condenses the water from the air and uses it to cool the condenser for improved efficiency. Thus, the air can function for long period of time.

Conclusion

In your search for a top air conditioner brand, be sure to ascertain that it has the features and qualities of the most recent brands. Such brands have been enhanced with energy efficiency, room decoration ability, and improved functionality.

 

Key Low-Pressure Shower Head Advantages

Low-Pressure Shower HeadCurrent shower heads are rated by their ability to reduce water wastage and also spray the water effectively during bathing. This makes your home eco-friendly through saving in the consumption of water and the usage of resources such as money used to pay bills.

The low-pressure shower head has emerged as one of the most effective shower heads in ensuring water saving and effective water production. The shower head emerged into the market recently and it has already proved to be a solution to many homes.

Advantages of Using Low-Pressure Shower Head

The low-pressure shower head has quite a wide range of advantages associated with it. It is modeled in a way to enhance effectiveness and water saving efficiency in homes. The following are specific advantages of the shower head:

1) Effectiveness in Controlled Water Usage

With a low-pressure shower head, you have a solution to water wastage in your home. The shower head is believed to save over 40% of the water utilized for bathing at home. The shower head released 2-2.5 gallons of water per minute compared to 5-8 gallons with the previous shower heads.

Water used for bathing purposes at home accounts up to 25% of the total water used at home. Therefore, by saving a considerable part of this water, the shower head enhances consumption of water to be utilized in later seasons.

2) Energy Efficiency

The shower head requires electric energy in order to warm the water used for bathing. However, with its limited water production through the shower head nozzles, the water which is already warmed can pass the heat to the in-flowing water.

Therefore, you do not need to spend a lot of electric energy to warm your bathing water. Eventually, this translates into considerable savings in the amount of money used to pay for the water bills at home.

3) Easy to Install and Maintain

Low-Pressure Shower HeadThe shower head comes with manual and all the accessories requires for installation and maintenance. Using the manual, you can easily install the shower head into its required position at the top in the bathroom.

The shower head has well made nozzles which do not easily clog due to water hardness. It also covers the part of the tap to which it is attached to well. Therefore, there is no need to carry out regular repair or replacement.

4) Less Emission of Carbon Dioxide

Low pressure shower head retains the heat with water. Also, it passes heat to in-flowing water for bathing. Therefore, the amount of hot water needed to the shower is lessened. At the same time, energy required to heat water is reduced.

Thus, you do not need to burn a lot of fuel in order to heat the water in the tankless water heater. This results to reduced carbon dioxide emission. Low-pressure shower head has gained popularity due this eco-friendly property.

Conclusion

With a low pressure shower head, you have a solution for water wastage, energy efficiency, and excessive bills in your home. The shower head can result to savings of up to $500 annually. Also, through efficiency in water and energy consumption as well as less carbon dioxide emission, the shower is eco-friendly.